A “How-to” Paragraph – Time Order

A “how-to” paragraph explains how to do something or how to make something. In order to give clear explanation, a “how-to” paragraph must be carefully organized. There are four keys to writing a clear “how-to” paragraph.

  • Begin with a topic sentence that names the topic and says the paragraph will give instructions about it.
  • Divide the instructions into a series of steps or tips. For some topics, you will need to use time order and time-order transition signals to present each step of a process from beginning to end. For example, you would use time order to give step-by-step instructions on how to check the oil in a car.

First, turn off the engine. Next, open the hood of the car. After you`ve done that, locate the oil …

For topics where it is important to do steps in a certain order, you can use listing order and listing-order transition signals to present a series of tips. For instance, you could use listing order to present a series of tips on how to improve your speaking skills.

First, use every opportunity to practice. Second, don`t worry about making mistakes. In addition, watch a lot of TV …

  • Explain each step or tip one by one.
  • Use transition signals to introduce each important step or tip.



A Process Paragraph – Listing Order

A process paragraph explains how to do something – its description. The process should be described in a series of steps that follow a logical time order.

  1. Choose a topic that you have some knowledge about. It’s easier to write about something you’ve done many times before.
  2. Consider your audience. Who are you writing for and what background information does your reader need to follow the steps? Most process writing is written in second person (you). That gives your writing the feel that you are guiding another person through the steps of how to do something.
  3. Make sure that your topic sentence clearly states what you are going to explain and also makes a point that indicates your view of your topic.

E.g., By doing a little research and planning, you can save hundreds or even thousands of dollars on a used car.

  1. Avoid simply announcing your topic: e.g., This paragraph will explain how to cook chicken.
  2. Present the steps in the correct order. This helps avoid confusion.
  3. Use sentence connectors, transition words and subordinators to make your paragraph coherent.
  4. Include all necessary details and steps. Keep the question “HOW”. At the same time, you’ll have to decide how much detail is sufficient within the limits of a paragraph.

Here is an example of a Listing Order Paragraph.

How to Have a Successful Yard Sale

1 In order to have a successful yard sale, you need to prepare well by following these simple steps. 2 First, decide on a day and time for your sale. 3 Make sure it`s several weeks in the future so that you have time to get ready. 4 Next, look through your family`s belongings and collect used items in good condition. 5 These can be anything that you no longer want, such as clothing, toys, books, dishes, lamps, furniture, and even TVs. 6 Then clean everything thoroughly, and clearly label each item with a price. 7 if you are not sure how much to charge, check the prices at the other yard sales in your community. 8 If you price your items cheaply, people will be more likely to buy them. 9 After that, you should store your items carefully until the day of the sale. 10 About a week before, get some change from the bank. 11 you should get at least $20 in one-dollar bills, $50 in five dollar bills, $100 in 10-dollar bills, and one or two rolls of quarters. 12 A day or two before the sale, make signs advertising the date, time, and address of your sale. 13 Then put the signs up in places where they will easily attract people`s attention. 14 Finally, on the morning of the sale, get up early and arrange the items attractively on tables and racks in front of your home. 15 it`s important to be ready on time because smart shoppers often arrive early. 16 if you work hard and organize the details, your yard sale will be a great success.

(From Longman Academic Writing Series 2)

I am very glad all students could write wonderful paragraphs on how to. Let`s read what they wrote.

Quick tips to stay safe before and during an earthquake

An earthquake is a natural disaster and you must be prepared to stay safe. These are several tips that you can follow to be ready for an quake and to minimize the damage. First of all, make sure you have a fire extinguisher, first aid kit, a flashlight and batteries at home. These are implements that will allow you to remain calm in case the temblor is very strong. Second, try to take a short course about first aid. You can take it online, it is not necessary to pay extra money to learn the most important things that you have to do in a disaster. Third, make up a plan of where you can meet with your family after the earthquake. This is important because an earthquake is something that happens unexpectedly, and certainly the whole family will not be together when it happens. Therefore a place is needed to meet after the earthquake to ensure everyone is well. Fourth, don’t leave heavy objects on shelves and try to anchor heavy furniture to the walls or floor. During an shiver all around you is panic, everybody is running to survive, and these objects can block your way or fall down on you, causing serious injuries and leaving you vulnerable to heavier objects, such as walls or the house’s structure. Finally, during the seismic activity, stay calm. If you are indoors, stay inside and follow the tips above, if you are outdoors, stay outside in an open area, if you are in your car, stop it until the earthquake ends and if you are in a commercial building do not use the elevators because they will probably get stuck. Earthquakes are not often occurrence but you do not have to underestimate the importance of being prepared and these pointers could save your own life and many others.

  How to take a driver license in  NY

To take a driver license in New York, you have to follow these steps. First of all, you have to go to a local  DMV office and determine the type of license you want. There are different  types of  commercial license, motorcycle license, taxi license.A second step is to get a learner permit. You can prepare by reading the New York State Driver’s Manual. If you pass, they will take all your information like your ID,if you are a foreigner have to bring your passport to and your bank account information. Also, they will  take a picture of you and will do the eye test.  Then you have to pay the fee, it depends of your age  and about for two weeks you will take your learner permit.A third step is to practice driving and take a pre-licensing course.  You must take a pre-licensing course  before you take your road test. Finally, pass the road test. If you pass the road test, the examiner will give you an interim licence that allows you to drive. About two weeks later they will send to you by mail your license.To sum up, if you want a driver license you have to follow carefully all these steps.


How to start your own business

Starting your own business is an opened door to your economic independence. Even though having a personal business will give you financial autonomy, it carries stress and discouragement. The following steps can be followed in order to start your own business while managing the problems mentioned above.The most important  step of beginning with a personal business is to have an internal motivation. Internal motivation is a stimulation which will give you strength to pursue your goal and willingness to approach all difficulties that may occur. Once you have the interest, you can move on to the next step which is choosing a target public for your project. Selecting your objective buyer is your life and death. It is very crucial and it will help you define better your next step which is identifying a business idea. This third step in the process of commencing your own entreprise has to take into account your affinity and your audience’s.  After these three steps, it is time to prepare your initiative budget and look for partners that you trust. Partners are very important not only because they will participate financially but also because they will give their inputs which can help you refine your idea. Finally, it is time to go ahead and start. An attractive launch with media release would be very gainful. The reason is it will give you visibility and people will come to visit you.  If you follow the above steps you will be both economically self sufficient and a contented person due to the fact that you do what you love and work with people that you believe in.


How to prepare for a job interview

If you want to pass a job interview, you must follow up these steps. First of all, you must have a certification or at least an “Associate degree”, that means you know the subject, the section or the science you would like to apply. Second, a resume of your acknowledge or your work history will be necessary because the manager would like to have a briefing of you before the meeting. Third, try to know some information about the company you would like to apply and how you can help the section you apply for. Fourth, after you choose the company you would like to apply, go to the website of the company, apply for the section or send your email with a “cover letter”, to say who you are and why you would like to be a membership of that company. Fifth, before the interview, you have to determine how many hours and days you want to work, and then the salary you would like to have. Sixth, the day of the interview, force to arrive 10 or 15 minutes before the time. Seventh or finally, you “MUST” have a good presentation by your clothes (no t-shirt, no sneakers and no jeans but shirt [with long sleeve], shoes and pants will be better), afterwards bring a copy of your resume in case they ask you for one. If you follow up the steps above, the job is already yours!

How to organize archives

   You may have a lot of documents, notebooks, papers, letters or pictures received from your parents and grandparents. Those are very precious spiritual wealth. You should collect and organize them. How to organize them to be well-structured archives? Here are some steps you should try. First, roughly estimated how many things you have. Buy some folders, boxes, protect sheets or albums for classify each storage. Second, write down some notes in time order like 30’, 40’, 50’ or 2000’, 2010’. Or write the notes by events such as during the war, during living in HK, after moved to Beijing. Put those notes on the folders or boxes. Finally, you can separate your documents, notebooks, papers, letters or pictures to folders, boxes, protection sheets or albums in order. This process may be repeated several times, until you can easily access them at any time. If you follow those steps and make sure your archives are organized, you can use them to learn about family history or you can tell your children about those stories. You can start writing an article even books about your family stories. Your life will be richer!

How to improve vocabulary

                There are a few steps how to improve and expand vocabulary. First of all, reading. Try to read as often as it is possible and use appropriate books of age and quality of reading. Second, listening. Talking to people, watching TV, or listening to the radio, helps building vocabulary. Third, a dictionary. Be in touch with a dictionary and use it when words could not be understood. Also, study phrases. Some phrases have firmly a structure and it is good know how to say it.  Every advice with diligence may help improve vocabulary and learn language.

How to take a street photography

                      Street photography has different meanings to different people. For me street photography is about capturing and preserving a moment of everyday life. So, on this day I’ll be walking around Manhattan taking random shots of people. I look for all various types of characters, like people with lots of make up or purple hair or long beards. Some people wear unique clothing, others walk unusual dogs and sometimes as simple as someone eating an ice cream cone on a park bench. In order to be successful I must prepare my camera. First, I have to make sure the battery has a full charge. When the battery is full I can take about 300 photos. Second, I check the memory card. If it is almost full, I’ll buy an extra card. Third, I must clean the lens. I use a special cleaning solution lens cloth from the camera store. Next, I adjust the cameras exposure mode according to light conditions. The exposure settings range from bright sun with snow to indoors with a flash. Then, I set the shutter speed. If the subject is moving, I set the shutter for at least 250th of a second so the subject is not blurred.  If the subject is still I like to use 60th to125th of a second. After the camera settings are in place, I’m ready to compose the shot. Composing the picture is the artistic part of taking the photograph. A good composition is when the subject and surroundings are balanced, interesting and pleasing to the eye. Finally, while holding the camera very still, I focus the lens and click the shutter. Street photography is a great hobby. You get to observe and preserve a moment in time. Once in a while, you’ll get that incredible shot that is in focus, well composed and tells a story. But it would not be possible if the camera was not prepared.

How to stop procrastinating

         It is common to say “I will do it tomorrow”. Every day people procrastinate because is a bad habit hard to leave off. There are 7 tips to stop procrastinating. First at all, create a to-do list. Take a paper and write the things that you usually delay. Choose specific times whether it will be possible to do. If you are a kind of person who put tasks off because you have a lot of things to do, this will be a good way for you. Second, make a routine. Daily habits such as wake up, make the dinner, take a shower, do exercise, go to sleep, at the same time help you complete the errands. The third tip is take time off. Elect a different activity for ten minutes. Do not ignore the alarm and go back to work. Another way is by tuning out distractions. Nowadays there are many digital distractions; As a consequence, people tend to escape via TV, social networks or music. Before a final project, avoid the amusements. The next tip to evade procrastination is set goals. If you want to finish a book, but you are still postponing reading it, then challenge yourself and say “I will finish in two weeks”. After that, make your intentions public. Involve people around you such as friends, family and partners; tell them your objectives. This will add pressure and force you to do it. The last tip is stop thinking and start doing. Do not thinks in any other activity, stand up and just do it. Keep working until it is finished. Only stop if it is extremely necessary. Keep in mind that every day spent procrastinating is another day spent worrying about that thing. Do it now, and move on with your life!

How to stop bad habits

             Bad habits are formed through repetition.  There are many ways bad habits can develop. First, if someone repeats the same behavior over and over that can turn into a bad habit. For instance, if a person smokes several times in a daily basis, it is easy for the brain to adapt to the smoking habit. Second, when someone is not strong enough to resist problems, it is more than likely for that person to develop a bad habit. For example, once the person cannot cope with the issue at hand he or she may turn into drinking alcohol or taking drugs to forget the problems. The more a person practices a bad habit, the easier it is for the brain to adapt to it. I have some tips to help stop developing bad habits. First, the person needs to recognize that he has a bad habit. Find out what the reason is for your bad habit. It could be money, relationship, insecurity, psychological issues or work.  Second, the person should be willing to stop the habit. Try hard not to repeat the activity every day. Substitute bad habits to a good habits. Instead of drinking alcohol, drink coffee. Third, do not be afraid to ask for professional help.  Also, talk to friends and family members. Be surrounded by positive people. Bad habits can be changed with discipline and perseverance.


How to build a house

                 Nowadays our society is growing so fast that it implies more resources to cover all population needs. One of these needs is a house, and every day, everybody dreams about when it will be possible to afford their own home. In this small writing, I would like to introduce you how to build a house with simple steps. First, look for and settle a place where the new house is going to be constructed. Also, do not forget to get together all construction plans. Make sure that all paperwork with the local Town is correct as well as, getting all resources needed, such as heavy machinery, wood and workers as it will avoid several issues later. Second, to start it is necessary to dig the soil a deepness up to 10ft. It will help to construct the house foundation (house bases).  After that, using wood and following the constructions plans, start building columns and beams. Moreover, in this step, the window frame construction is part of this. After finishing all floors, the next step is to construct the ceiling. In this case, the materials used may vary, whether using steel or wood, but at the end, the idea is to follow all construction plans. Once all “home skeleton” is ready, the following step is to build all walls. There are several ways to do that, but the most properly is by using a crane. Considering that, all walls are prefabricated; the crane will help to place every wall in its place.  Finally, yet importantly, all stairs and electrical installations are the final step, if this is unknown by the owner, request professional assistance. In conclusion, though building a home sounds easy, it is always necessary to request help in order to keep relatives and acquaintances safe.

How to enjoy life when you on a tight budget

               You can have many ways to enjoy life when you are on a tight budget. First of all, the most important thing is to choose a simple lifestyle. Despise of materialism that will not help you, there is no need of a lot of money to be very happy. For example, play with your family outside; create some stories for your children; watch TV together and then discuss it our family. Second, be a smart consumer. In different days and different shops, you always can find what you need on sale. It has good quality with lower price. Third, use the public facilities as library or museum or swimming pool. They are free or very cheap but you can enjoy them a lot. Also, you can get involved in your community. There are always projects going on, like travel, parties or courses. Finally, make friends. Go to school, go to Natural Park, all of them would make you happy. Think about those ways, you will come up with many good ideas to enjoy life in your own way even if you are on a tight budget.


How to select an apartment

                 Your apartment will be your home or more, you should ensure it meets most, if not all your needs. Otherwise, you’ll end up regretting your choice. Before making the choice, take the time to consider carefully these steps regarding how to select an apartment. First of all, the area. Just make sure the atmosphere is appropriate for your personality, work or study habits. For example, is it quiet or will the place drive you crazy? Second, convenience. Choosing an apartment that’s properly located can make your life easier. Look for a place get-at-able to your needs such as transportation, shopping and amenities Third, safety. Not only have to be in a safe neighborhood. Landlords should make an effort to ensure their tenants feel safe inside. For instance, lock on each door, private entrance, each room must at least one window that you can you use as an escape in case of emergency. In addition, the price. It’s important to compare the price. Similarly examine the cost of others apartments and see the difference. Is it the price of the apartment fair? If it is can you afford it? And then the price must balance with your salary. Finally get a second opinion. Bringing a friend or a family member along is always a good idea. That can help you to decide.


How to buy a used car

                          Buying a used car it’s not easy but with my following 6 steps it will be the easiest thing to make a good choice. First of all, do a lot of research on a car before you buy it.  Make sure that the car does not have a lot of miles, because if it does, it will probably have to do more repairs than necessary.   Second, after choosing the right car, the next important thing to do is making your restoring budget. The important thing is to plan out how much money you will be able to save each month to restore your car, to save for your regularly scheduled oil change and the major repairs the car needs. Third, find a good prospective car, don’t run out to see it. Call the seller and make an appointment to verify the information about the car and check the vehicle history report. In addition, test-drive the car. Test-driving a used car is the best way to know if this is the right car make and model. It’s also a good way to assess this particular car’s condition. Be able to check. Ask questions, for example, is it easy to get in and out the car, is the driving position comfortable, are the seats comfortable, see a lit check engine light, how is the visibility, how is the rearview mirror and the side mirrors. Use your nose to smell if it smells gas, burning oil, or anything amiss. Check out the tires. How old are they? Is there enough tread left? How are the brakes? Are they doing the job of stopping the car? Does the air-conditioning blow cold? Do headlights, brake lights and turn indicators work? After the test driving, ask the seller to have the car inspected by a mechanic before buy it just to make sure the car is in good condition. Then, make an opening offer that is lower than your maximum price. Arrive at a price that sounds good and is near the average price paid. Finally, make sure the seller properly transfers the title and registration. It’s important to close the deal correctly to avoid after-sale hassles. If possible, check with local department of motor vehicles to make sure there are no past-due registration fees will be responsible for. Have insurance for the car before drive it away. All of these steps can help you to make easily choice when you buy a used car.


How to file an Income Tax Return

In the United States you will need to file a federal income tax return every year to determine how much you owe in federal tax. Although many people are afraid by the thought of filing their tax return. Income tax filing is a process that millions of people compete successfully every year. There are some important steps you should take to file your federal income tax return.

First of all, find out if you are required to file a deferral income tax return.

While most of people are required to file and pay taxes, there are certain persons with low income (as children) who are exempt. You will most likely have to file an income tax return, but you should ask your tax preparer before you proceed.

Second, determine your filing status.

The federal tax filing status include: single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, head of household, and qualifying widow with dependent child. You may qualify to one of these filing status, in which case you will have to make a choice. In that situation, you should choose the filing status according to the law.

Third, personal exemptions and dependents.

The IRS allows taxpayers to claim a personal exemption for themselves and their dependents. A personal exemption is similar to a tax deduction (such as: contributions, donations, charity, tithe, materials, tools) it reduce your taxable income. Your personal exemption information must be exact on your tax return because it basically impacts how much federal taxes you owe.

To claim dependents, they have to live with you for more than six months, and additionally you should also cover all their expenses through the year.

Fourth, report your income for the tax year.

Most people can simply bring their W-2 to determinate their annual income. If you have had more than one job during the year is necessary get all your W-2s, because you will need to report them.

Also, individuals who are self-employed will have to spend extra time on this part of the filing process.

Fifth, claim eligible tax credits and deductions.

Tax deductions reduce your taxable income and tax credits reduce the actual amount of tax that owe, or it will increase your chance of receiving a tax refund. Make sure you understand how to correctly claim any income tax benefits, because mistakes will delay the processing of your return.

Finally, sign your tax return.

If all your documentation is correct you will have finishes with your tax return. You just need to sign and receive your copies, filing a tax return may take less than an hour.

Although filing and paying taxes can be stressful, having the right information and an excellent tax preparer reduce your risk of making mistakes.



                                    How to quit smoking

             I have some tips to follow on how to quit smoking. First, you get out of the house for walk. When you keep thinking about cigarette, you should go out. Once you are out, the desire is subsided. Also you keep walking while you are listening to music or talking on the phone in a long conversation. In addition, spend your time with non-smoking friends and family. You could have less and less interest.  Try it every day and do not give up. GOD will help you. The second tip is eat chew gum or hard candy. When you keep thinking about cigarette, eat chew gum and watch TV or a movie.  Keep yourself totally busy doing one thing after another. Furthermore, drink a lot of water.  It helps with your anxiety. The third tip is keep your hands busy or play game in, when you think about cigarette keep your hands busy doing things, read a book or watch YouTube funny videos in your cellphone. Finally, quit smoking, GOD will help you. The most important thing is pray and GOD help you. You can get the answer what if you pray.



To make your closet look perfect, organized and clean, you have to follow these steps. First at all, you need to be able to separate your clothes in a correct order. It is important also to have an idea of how much clothes you have to calculate the space you will need. Next, separate the clothes by type. For example, on one side jeans, on the other t-shirts and sweaters and eventually organize the jackets. After that, it’s time to start folding the garments. Following the same order you will make the wardrobe look more organized. Also, once you already have the clothes folded and organized by types of garments, it is time to separate them by sector. Jeans and pants can be folded or put on hangers, depending on whether it is necessary to keep them ironed. On the other hand, t-shirts and sweaters can be folded together in the same place. Finally in this step, you take the jackets and hang them in the hangers sector.

How to make roasted meat

                    What is the easiest way to roast a meat?  If you want to eat meat, and you are not a big cook, there are a couple of easy steps below to help you roast almost all kinds of meat. Choose chicken or pork at first to learn meat roasting, as their preparations are the easiest.

First of all, turn on the cooker. Start it on low intensity. Secondly, put oil in the pan, and put the pan on the cooker. When the oil gets hot, slide the meat in thin slices and them into the pan, and turn up the cooker. After that, season the meat. Salt and pepper is the easiest way of seasoning. Check the meat slices in every 2 minute! If one side is roasted, flip them, then roast the other side for 2-3 minutes. Don’t forget to season both sides of the meat. Beware of over-roasting! Check the softness of the meat by fork during the cooking. Finally, when the meat is roasted, take it out from the pan, and serve it with side dishes of your preference.

To sum up,  anyone can roast meat at home easily, and serve delicious meat-dishes, instead of eating out. Furthermore, you could surprise yourself or anybody else, anytime. And it takes only couple of minutes. Enjoy your meal!




·       1 lamb leg about 8 lbs.

·       1 tsp, black pepper.

·       1tbsp, ginger.

·       2tbsp, salt.

·       1cup, red wine.

·       10 garlic clove.

·       1tbsp, thyme.

·       2tbsp, yogurt.

·       1tsp, cloves.

·       1 turkey size oven bag.


Gather all the ingredients you need.

First, wash the lamb leg and dry it with paper towels.

Second, make holes in the lamb leg, and put the garlic cloves inside the holes.

Third prepare the marinade by combining all the ingredients.

Next, cover the lamb leg with the marinade, and let it sit in the fridge overnight.

In the second day preheat the oven to 400.

After that, put the lamb leg in the oven bag, then cover it foil sheet.

Finally, put it in the oven for 2 hours.


Extra Links:


wikiHow – How to do anything

How to Buy a Used Car